Since 1940, people have found a link between smoking and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Though smoke a few cigarettes a day also increases the risk of developing this disease. Tight correlation between smoking and heart disease is not only found in the 2 world, the young and the elderly, but also seen in all races. Smoking increases the risk 2-3 times and it also interacts with other factors increase the risk many times. The disease that smokers have higher risk is atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, stroke, arrhythmia, sudden death, myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysm. Among the coronary artery disease is the most important, accounting for over half of deaths from heart disease caused by smoking. There is no evidence that smoking filtered cigarettes or various types of tobacco reduces the risk factor.
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The studies of the pathophysiology have identified the mechanism by which cigarette smoke can cause cardiovascular disease. People who smoke have increased levels of oxidation products including oxidized LDL cholesterol, and reduce the concentration of HDL cholesterol, a heart-protective factor. These factors along with the direct effect of CO2 and nicotine cause damage to internal circuitry. Maybe through this mechanism people who smoke have an increased reaction of the blood vessels. The reduced supply of blood carry oxygen makes the risk of ischemic heart disease increases and increases the risk of coronary spasm. Smoking is also related to increased levels of fibrinogen and increased platelet aggregation.
1. Smoking affects heartbeat and blood pressure
When inhaled in cigarette smoke causes some immediate impact on the heart and blood vessels. Smoking stimulates the autonomic nervous system of the heart. In the first minutes of the smoking, the heartbeat begins to rise, which can rise to 30% in the first 10 minutes after smoking. The heart rate may drop slowly if continued smoking, but never returned to normal if not stopped smoking.
Another important impact is causing acute hypertension. In some studies show that blood pressure back to normal between each smoke but if they smoke several times a day resulting in increase average blood pressure. Smoking also increases blood pressure oscillations. While hypertension can lead to heart disease, hypertension oscillations are even more dangerous to the heart.
Smoking also reduces the effect of treatment of hypertension. Some studies have shown that smoking makes the useless treatment of hypertension.The mechanism that lose the benifits of drug because it stimulates the liver to produce enzymes in the blood that limit the effect of the drug.
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2. Coronary artery disease:
proactive Smoking was known definitely was a risk factor of coronary artery disease, but environmental exposure to tobacco smoke or passive smoking, the risk of coronary heart disease increases by 20-30%. Smokers are at risk for coronary heart disease than 2-4 times and mortality higher than 70% due to this disease.
Cause of coronary heart disease due to atherosclerosis. Intravascular layer can be destroyed by some of the following: high blood pressure, toxic chemicals (such as those found in cigarette smoke) and high cholesterol. These chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are carcinogenic substances in tobacco are also effective cause plaque formation.
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Smoking is the high risk of atherosclerosis, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. When combined with the risk factors, smoking creates a huge impact, much greater than that of two separate factors plus.
Angina and myocardial infarction
People who smoke usually get both angina and myocardial infarction than in those who did not smoke. Smokers began to smoke, the risk get heart attack earlier, the risk of recurrent infarction in a year higher 2 times compared with non-smokers.
When compared with those who never smoke, people who smoke are at risk of coronary vasospasm is higher than 20 times, while coronary heart contractions last longer and at lower levels of stress than nonsmokers. Coronary artery spasm can occur after only a cigarette.
Arrhythmias and sudden death
Smoking can affect normal functioning of the body by increasing the number of catecholamines, natural chemicals in the body like adrenaline. This impact can cause arrhythmia, or abnormal heartbeat. Smokers often have risk of dangerous arrhythmia called ventricular fibers brain disease and brain activity weak. The arrhythmia may increase the risk of death for people because suffer heart attacks.
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3. Aortic aneurysm
Anyone can get Aortic atherosclerosis, but people who smoke are at high risk of these plaques grew. These plaques make artery walls weakened and create the bulge, or aneurysm in the artery. The weak spot may rupture. In smokers, the rate of aortic aneurysms was higher than 8 times and and the mortality rate due to ruptured aneurysm is much higher than non-smokers.
People who smoke have high risk of Cardiomyopathy than nonsmokers. The smoke causes disease by destroying the small arteries or perhaps CO in cigarette smoke damage the heart muscle directly. Smoking may also increase susceptibility to viral infection leads to inflammation of Cardiomyopathy.
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5. Peripheral Vascular Disease
Those who smoke have risk for peripheral vascular disease higher 16 times than people who never smoke. In those who quit smoking, the risk is higher 7 times than the group never smoke. Approximately 76% of patients get peripheral vascular due to smoking. Peripheral blood diseases often cause pain, limited mobility and could threaten lives. These patients continue to smoke while on treatment of this disease, the treatment is less effective.