In America there are many studies on the relationship between tobacco use and cancer was conducted, these studies estimate that about a third of cancer deaths related to tobacco use. Tobacco causes approximately 90% of all deaths from lung cancer and smoking also causes cancer in many other parts like pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, uterus, cervix, kidney, bladder, colon and rectum.
1. Lung cancer
50 years ago, Doll and Hill have shown that smoking causes lung cancer and mortality rate from lung cancer increases with the amount of tobacco smoke. In the Worldwide incidence of lung cancer increased rapidly in the last 60 years, increasing more than the other major cancers and this rate shows a closely related with the number of smokers increased. Lung cancer rate is lower in the population do not smoke.
Smoking is the major cause of lung cancer, about 87% of the 177 000 new cases in the US in 1996 was caused by tobacco, the rest are due to other causes, such as environmental pollution, occupational diseases, eating , atopic and genetic factors. 90% of the 660,000 cases of lung cancer are diagnosed every year in the world are smokers. Assume the risk of non-smokers with lung cancer is 1 and the risk of smokers with lung cancer is 10 times higher than those who do not smoke. The level of increased risk varies by type of cancer, the risk of carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell in smokers increase 5 to 20 times. The risk of adenocarcinoma and carcinoma cells cancer increased 2 to 5 times greater than nonsmokers.
The level of risk will increase with the number of years of smoking, number of cigarettes consumed daily, and age starting smoking. How many tobaccos a day will increase the risk of lung cancer? It was found that with any amount of tobacco also causes an increased risk of lung cancer. In other words there is no lower limit of the amount of tobacco needed to cause lung cancer. The time start smoking is also important, the sooner you smoke, the higher risk of lung cancer you get.
Those who do not smoke but married to smokers, the death rate from lung cancer 20% higher than those married to nonsmokers and mortality from lung cancer also increased along with the number of tobacco smoke by the wife or the husband.
Only about 13% of lung cancer patients survive 5 years. The rate of death from lung cancer in men smoked higher 22 times than non-smoking men, while in women is about 12 times. While many women believe that breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in women, in 1988 lung cancer is higher than in breast cancer deaths in women
Passive smoking also increases the risk of lung cancer with relative risk index ranging from 1.2 to 1.5. While simultaneously smoking and exposure to other toxic elements, the risk of lung cancer will increase many times over.
2. The type of cancer in parts of the head and neck
Cancers of the head and neck parts including esophageal cancer, larynx, tongue, salivary glands, lip, mouth and throat. The risk of this cancer will gradually increase with the amount and duration of smoking. Smoking and alcohol are the two biggest factors that cause cancer in parts of the head and neck. Alcoholism and the products derived from tobacco together increases the risk of long term carcinogenicity.
– Esophageal cancer. The risk of developing esophageal cancer of smokers is greater than nonsmokers 8 to 10 times. These risks will be increased from 25 to 50 percent if smokers use more alcohol.
– Cancer of the larynx. Smoking causes 80% of laryngeal cancer. Smokers have higher risk from larynx cancer 12 times than nonsmokers.
– Cancer of the mouth. Smoking is the major cause of cancer of the tongue, salivary gland, mouth and throat. Men who smoke are 27 times greater of developing oral cancer disease than men who do not smoke.
-Nasal Cancer. In the long term smokers will have high risk of developing Nasal Cancer 2 times than nonsmokers
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3. Kidney and bladder cancer
Smokers are at risk for both kidney cancer and bladder. Of the total deaths from bladder cancer, is estimated at 40 to 70% are due to tobacco use.
4. Pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic is prone to get cancer due to the smoke into the pancreas through the blood and gallbladder. Estimated that tobacco is the cause of 30% of total pancreatic cancer.
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5. Genital Cancer
– Vulvar cancer: Vulvar cancer is a part of the female that rarely meet. However, women who smoke have double the risk of vulvar cancer.
– Cervical cancer: the link between smoking and cervical cancer has only been discovered recently. At least 12 studies have shown that women smokers have an increased risk of cervical cancer, and risk increases with the amount and duration of tobacco use.
– Penis Cancer: Cancer of the penis has become increasingly common in men smoking than non-smoking men.
6. Cancer of the anus and rectum
– Anus cancer. Recent evidence has found tobacco is causative agent for Cancer of the anus and rectum. Also in a large scale study conducted in the US, for men and women who smoke are at risk of cancer increased from 75 to 100% … compared with the same age who did not smoke.